(Jump to Table of Contents)JavaScript is the only universal language for client-side programming for web applications. If you need to write anything that will run in the browser, JavaScript is currently your only option. That is unfortunate, since JavaScript is an amalgam of some good parts and some truly horrible parts. (See the book JavaScript: The Good Parts for more details.)

Among the good parts of JavaScript is its functional part, which is widely used to create callbacks; but it can also be used for functional-programming techniques in general. For a fascinating but advanced presentation of the elegant way in which NetFlix uses functional programming in JavaScript to perform asynchronous processing, see the ACM webinar titled "August 2014: Async JavaScript at Netflix."

In this part of the series, I will show the examples of higher-order functions from Part 3 in JavaScript, and contrast it with the Java 8 implementation. For the Scheme and Java 7 versions, see Part 3. First, however, is the simple example from Part 2:

Java 8 |

IntFunction<IntUnaryOperator> makeAdder = x -> y -> x + y; IntUnaryOperator increment = makeAdder.apply(1); int res = increment.applyAsInt(4); |

JavaScript |

var makeAdder = function(x) { return function(y) { return x + y; } } var increment = makeAdder(1); var res = increment(4); |

As you can see, the JavaScript syntax for defining functions is more verbose but not unreasonable. In contrast, function calls use the familiar mathematical notation without requiring a spurious method call.

Ecma International publishes the standards for the JavaScript language, under the name ECMAScript. The draft ECMAScript 6 standard (code named Harmony) introduces "arrow functions"; these are very similar to regular JavaScript functions but use an alternative definition syntax (and improve the semantics in small but significant ways). For comparison, here is the same code using this notation:

ECMAScript Harmony (still in draft status) |

var makeAdder = x => y => x + y; var increment = makeAdder(1); var res = increment(4); |

This is very similar to Java 8, except for the use of the => symbol instead of ->. As in Java 8, this is the simplest syntax for defining functions; there are variants for more complex cases. For example, if the function has more (or less) than one argument, the argument list must be placed in parentheses. Unlike Java 8, of course, ECMAScript has no syntax to specify the types of the arguments or the returned value. There are other differences as well; see the proposed draft for further details.

Here is the recursive fixed-point function:

Java 8 |

public double fixedpoint(DoubleUnaryOperator f, double v) { double next = f.applyAsDouble(v); if (Math.abs(next - v) < epsilon) return next; else return fixedpoint(f, next); } |

JavaScript |

function fixedpoint(f, v) { var next = f(v); if (Math.abs(next - v) < epsilon) return next else return fixedpoint(f, next); } |

These are very similar, except for the lack of types in JavaScript. Here is the imperative version of fixedpoint. JavaScript, like Java, doesn't guarantee that tail-recursion optimization will always be performed, and this version is more natural for JavaScript. For these reasons, I find this acceptable practice even when using functional-programming techniques in JavaScript, provided that the variables being modified aren't used in any other context.

Java 8 |

public double fixedpoint(DoubleUnaryOperator f, double v) { double prev = v; double next = v; do { prev = next; next = f.applyAsDouble(next); } while (Math.abs(next - prev) >= epsilon); return next; } |

JavaScript |

function fixedpoint(f, v) { var next = v; var prev = v; do { prev = next; next = f(next) } while (Math.abs(next - prev) >= epsilon); return next; } |

Next is the naive non-terminating version of sqrt that uses fixedpoint:

Java 8 |

public double sqrt(double x) { return fixedpoint(y -> x / y, 1.0); } |

JavaScript |

function sqrt(x) { fixedpoint(function(y) { return x / y; }, 1); } |

The boilerplate code is starting to get in the way here (although not as much as in Java 7, due to the lack of types). Still, it's becoming difficult to recognize the syntactic role of the constant 1. This annoyance should disappear with the release of ECMAScript Harmony.

The terminating version of sqrt that uses average damping implicitly looks like this:

Java 8 |

public double sqrt(double x) { return fixedpoint(y -> (y + x / y) / 2.0, 1.0); } |

JavaScript |

function sqrt(x) { fixedpoint(function(y) { return (y + x / y) / 2; }, 1); } |

Finally, here is the average-damp operator and the implementation of sqrt that uses it explicitly:

Java 8 |

public DoubleUnaryOperator averageDamp(DoubleUnaryOperator f) { return x -> (x + f.applyAsDouble(x)) / 2.0; } public double sqrt(double x) { return fixedpoint(averageDamp(y -> x / y), 1.0); } |

JavaScript |

function averageDamp(f) { return function(x) { return (x + f(x)) / 2; } } function sqrt(x) { return fixedpoint(averageDamp(function(y) { return x / y; }), 1); } |

In summary, higher-order functions are quite natural in JavaScript, with a syntax that is somewhat cumbersome but still manageable. One of the reasons it is simpler than Java 7 is the lack of types, which is a result of the lack of static typing in JavaScript as a whole. An interesting compromise is the language TypeScript, which supports gradual typing (see my review in a previous post) but compiles into JavaScript. TypeScript uses the arrow-function notation proposed for ECMAScript, so it allows very concise function definitions that do contain types. I will address TypeScript in a future post.

Coming up in this series: Scala, Xtend, and Haskell!

#functionalprogramming #javascript